Online Course

Leadership in Difficult Times

Unit 1:  People Under Stress


developed and designed by
Susan Smith Nash

For more flowcharts, see the
Writing Survival Guide











A man lights candles at a memorial on the Virginia Tech campus.
Credit: Heather Moyer

You may use this flow chart to help you get started with your paper.  You may follow it carefully, or you may use it as a starting point -- a point of departure. 

Alternatively, you can respond to the guiding questions or the points in the learning outcomes and objectives as detailed in the unit.

The choice is yours.  Please use at least two outside resources.  Cite them using APA.

Please keep in mind that flowcharts can be quite helpful in overcoming writer's block -- even more helpful than an outline. 

1--- Identify a situation in which war stress, post-traumatic stress syndrome, or general stress is having a negative impact on a situation. 
    --describe the situation
    --describe the stress
    ---how do you know that stress is having a negative impact?  What evidence is there?

2---Who are the impacted individuals?  Who are they?  How are they affected?
    --Primary impact:  describe the immediate situation and the context
    ---Secondary impact:  describe the individuals who are impacted by the stress of those suffering from primary impact, explain how they are affected
    --Tertiary impact:  describe the general impact that primary & secondary impact has on the community, the workplace, total strangers

3---Return to the situation.  Analyze it in terms of changeable and non-changeable elements.
    --What can be changed?
   ---What cannot be changed?  How do you know?

4---Focus on the changeable.  Develop a series of action steps to be followed. 
     --What will they be?
    --When are they to be implemented?
    --What is a general timeline?  What are the major milestones?  What are the steps that need to be taken under the category?

5--Who are the primary people that need to be influenced in order to make the action steps and the general plan doable?
    ---Who do you have to lead?
   ---How do you lead?  Leadership by example?  Leadership by persuasion?  Vision? Mission?

6--Short-term goals.
      How did you select them?
      Are they realistic?
      How will you know if they have been achieved?

7--Long-term goals. 
      How did you select them?
      Are they realistic?
      How will you know if they have been achieved?

8--Summary and overview.